Click here to learn more about the Inuit experience of Residential Schools
The following reading list is a selection of the growing number of publications that document the history and legacy of residential schools. It is by no means complete and is a work in progress.
For Younger Readers
Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shin-chi’s Canoe. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of Anansi, 2008.
Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shi-shi-etko. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of
Kusugak, Michael Arvaarluk. Arctic Stories. Illustrated by Vladyana Langer Krykorka. Toronto, ON: Annick Press Ltd., 1998.
Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. A Stranger at Home. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2011.
Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. Fatty Legs. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2010.
Loyie, Larry. As Long As The Rivers Flow, illustrations by Constance Brissenden. Toronto, ON: Groundwood
Olsen, Sylvia, Rita Morris, and Ann Sam. No Time to Say Goodbye: Children’s Stories of Kuper Island Residential School. Winlow, BC: Sono Nis Press, 2001.
Sterling, Shirley. My Name is Seepeetza. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 1993.
Hill, Gord. 500 Years of Resistance Comic Book. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Loyie, Larry, with illustrations by Constance Brissenden. Goodbye Buffalo Bay. Penticton, BC: Theytus
Adams, Howard. Prisons of Grass. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishers, Revised Edition, 1989.
Jean and Jan Hare. Good Intentions Gone Awry: Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission on the
Northwest Coast. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.
Berger, Thomas. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: the Report of the Mckenzie Valley Pipeline
Inquiry. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977.
Cariboo Tribal Council. Impact of the Residential School. Williams Lake, BC, 1991.
Chartrand, Larry N., Tricia E. Logan, and Judy D. Daniels. Métis History and Experience and Residential Schools in Canada/Histoire et expériences des Métis et les pensionnats au Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.
Deiter, Constance. From Our Mothers’ Arms: The Intergenerational Impact of Residential Schools in
Saskatchewan. Toronto, ON: United Church Publishing House, 1999.
Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples From Earliest Times. Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 1992.
Grant, Agnes. No End of Grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1996.
Huel, Raymond J.A. Proclaiming the Gospel to the Indians and Métis. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 1996.
Jaine, Linda. Residential Schools: The Stolen Years. Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan, University
Extension Press, 1993.
King, David. A Brief Report of the Federal Government of Canada’s Residential School System for Inuit/Bref
compte-rendu du Régime du pensionnats pour les Inuit du gouvernement fédéral du Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.
Lascelles, Thomas A. Roman Catholic Indian Residential Schools in British Columbia. Order of OMI in BC, 1990.
Métis Nation of Alberta. Métis Memories of Residential Schools: A Testament to the Strength of the Métis.
Edmonton, AB: Métis Nation of Alberta, 2004.
Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Toronto, ON: University of
Toronto Press, 1996.
Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council. Indian Residential Schools: The Nuu-chah-nulth Experience. Port Alberni, BC: Nuu-chahnulth Tribal Council, 1996.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 1, Chapter 10: “Residential Schools”. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996.
Titley, E. Brian. A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1986.
Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties: Women In Fur-Trade Society, 1670–1870. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.
Younging, Gregory, Jonathan Dewar, and Mike DeGagné, eds. Response, Responsibility, and Renewal: Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Journey/Réponse, responsabilité et renouveau. Cheminement du Canada vers la vérité et la réconciliation. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2009.
Ahenakew, Edward. Voices of the Plains Cree. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1973.
Apakark Thrasher, Anthony. Skid Row Eskimo. Toronto, ON: Griffin House, 1976.
Blondine-Perrin, Alice. My Heart Shook Like a Drum. Nepean, ON: Borealis Press, 2009.
Brass, Eleanor. I Walk in Two Worlds. Calgary, AB: Glenbow Museum, 1987.
Campbell, Maria. Halfbreed. Halifax, NS: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 1973.
Dandurand, Joseph A. Looking into the Eyes of My Forgotten Dreams. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 1998.
Ennamorato, Judith. Sing the Brave Song. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1999.
Fontaine, Theodore. Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools: A Memoir. Victoria, BC:
Heritage House, 2010.
French, Alice. My Name is Masak. Winnipeg, MB: Peguis, 1976.
Goodwill, Jean and Norma Sluman, eds. John Tootoosis. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1990.
Dyck, Noel. Differing Visions: Administering Indian Residential Schooling in Prince Albert, 1867–1967.
Hubbards: Fernwood Publishing, 1997.
Furniss, Elizabeth. Victims of Benevolence: The Dark Legacy of the Williams Lake Residential School.
Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1995.
Glavin, Terry and former students of St. Mary’s. Amongst God’s Own: The Enduring Legacy of St. Mary’s Mission. Mission, BC: Longhouse Publishing, 2002.
Graham, Elizabeth. The Mush Hole: Life at Two Indian Residential Schools. Waterloo, ON: Heffle
Grant, Agnes. Finding My Talk: How Fourteen Canadian Native Women Reclaimed their Lives after Residential
School. Markham, ON: Fifth House Books, 2004.
Haig-Brown. Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp
Jack, Agnes. Behind Closed Doors: Stories from the Kamloops Indian Residential School. Penticton, BC:
Theytus Books, 2006.
Joe, Rita with Lynn Henry. Song of Rita Joe: Autobiography of a Mi’kmaq Poet. Charlottetown, PE:
Ragweed Press, 1996.
Johnston, Basil H. Indian School Days. Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books, 1988.
Kennedy, Dan. Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1972.
Knockwood, Isabelle. Out of the Depths: The Experiences of Mi’kmaw Children at the Indian Residential School
at Shubenacadie, N.S. Hubbards, NS: Roseway Publishing, 1994.
Lawrence, Mary. My People, Myself. Halfmoon Bay, BC: Caitlin Press, 1996.
Moran, Bridget. Stoney Creek Woman: The Story of Mary John. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1997.
Willis, Jane. Geniesh: An Indian Girlhood. Toronto, ON: New Press, 1973.
Legacy and Reconciliation
Assembly of First Nations. Breaking the Silence: An Interpretive Study of Residential School Impact and
Healing, as Illustrated by the Stories of First Nation Individuals. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations, 1994.
Battiste, Marie and Jean Barman, eds. First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver, BC:
University of British Columbia Press, 1995.
Burnaby, Barbara. Languages and Their Role in Educating Native Children. Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for
Studies in Education Press, 1980.
Castellano, Marlene Brant, Linda Archibald, and Mike DeGagné, eds. From Truth to Reconciliation:
Transforming the Legacy of residential schools/De la vérité à la réconciliation. Transformer l’héritage
des pensionnats. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2008.
Chrisjohn, Roland, Andrea Bear Nicholas, Karen Stote, James Craven (Omahkohkiaayo i’poyi), Tanya Wasacase, Pierre Loiselle, and Andrea O. Smith. An Historic Non-Apology, Completely and Utterly Not Accepted.
Chrisjohn, Roland and Sherri Young. The Circle Game: Shadows and Substance in the Indian Residential School Experience. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1997.
Crey, Ernie and Suzanne Fournier. Stolen From Our Embrace: Abduction of First Nation Children and the
Restoration of Aboriginal Communities. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 1997.
Regan, Paulette. Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in
Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.
Schissel, Bernard and Terry Wotherspoon. The Legacy of School for Aboriginal People: Education, Oppression, and Emancipation. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Wadden, Marie. Where the Pavement Ends: Canada’s Aboriginal Recovery Movement and the Urgent Need for
Reconciliation. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 2008.
Alexie, Robert Arthur. Porcupines and China Dolls. Don Mills, ON: Stoddart, 2009.
Akiwenzie-Damm, Kateri and Josie Douglas, eds. Skins: Contemporary Indigenous Writing. Wiarton, ON:
Kegedonce Press and Alice Springs: Jukurrpa Books, 2000.
Armstong, Jeannette. Slash, Revised. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2007.
Blue Cloud, Peter. “Weaver Spider’s Web.” In All My Relations: An Anthology of Contemporary Canadian
Native Fiction, ed. Thomas King. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1990.
Boyden, Joseph. Born With a Tooth. Toronto, ON: Cormorant Books, 2009.
Gedalof, Robin, ed. Paper Stays Put: A Collection of Inuit Writing. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig Publishers, 1980.
Ipellie, Alootook. Arctic Dreams and Nightmares. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1993.
Maracle, Lee. Ravensong: A Novel. Vancouver, BC: Press Gang Publishers, 1993.
Moses, Daniel David and Terry Goldie, eds. An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Mosionier, Beatrice Culleton. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1999.
Highway, Tomson. Dry Lips Oughta Move To Kapuskasing. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1989.
. Kiss of the Fur Queen. Toronto, ON: Doubleday, 1998.
. The Rez Sisters. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1988.
Lakevold, Dale and Darrell Racine. Misty Lake: A Play. Winnipeg, MB: Loon Books, 2006.
Loring, Kevin. Where the Blood Mixes: A Play. Vancouver, BC: Talon Books, 2009.
Loyie, Larry and Vera Manuel. Two Plays About Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Living Traditions, 1998.
Moses, Daniel David. Brebeuf’s Ghost. Toronto, ON: Exile Editions, 2000.
Simon, Lorne Joseph. Stones and Switches. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.
Taylor, Drew Hayden. Toronto at Dreamer’s Rock. Education is Our Right: Two One-Act Plays. Saskatoon, SK:
Fifth House Publishers, 1990.
Armstrong, Jeannette and Lally Grauer, eds. Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2001.
Dumont, Marilyn. A Really Good Brown Girl. London, ON : Brick Books, 1996.
Dumont, Marilyn. That Tongued Belonging. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 2007.
Johnson, Emily Pauline. Flint and Feather. 1912. Reprint, Toronto, ON: Guardian Printing for Chiefswood National Historic Site, 1997.
Joe, Rita. Poems of Rita Joe. Halifax, NS: Abanaki Press, 1978.
. Songs of Eskasoni. Charlottetown, PE: Ragweed Press, 1988.
Redbird, Duke. Loveshine and Red Wine. Elliot Lake, ON: Woodland Studios Publishing, 1981.
Ruffo, Armand Garnet. Opening in the Sky. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.
Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875–1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
Bartels, Dennis A. and Alice L. Bartels. When the North Was Red: Aboriginal Education in Soviet Siberia.
Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1995.
Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families 1900–1940. Lincoln, NE: University of
Nebraska Press, 2000.
Ellis, Clyde. To Change Them Forever: Indian Education at the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1893–1920.
Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1996.
Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called it Prairie Light: The Story of the Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
Legacy of Hope Foundation
See how the Legacy of Hope Foundation is educating Canadians on the history of Indian Residential Schools. This video was produced by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada and was filmed in October 2013.
Our Stories… Our Strength
One of the Legacy of Hope Foundation’s largest and most important projects has been Our Stories… Our Strength, a national commemoration and education project that collects, organizes and shares the stories of Residential School Survivors and others affected by residential schools. Hear the powerful and moving interview excerpts from two Residential School Survivors.
We Were So Far Away
Eight Survivors, two from each of the Inuit geographic regions – Nunavik, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region – courageously and generously shared their stories
with the LHF in May 2008.
Where are the Children
This video accompanies the Where are the Children? exhibition and includes Survivor testimony and provides an introduction to the Indian Residential School System.
The Day of the Apology
A video which provides highlights of June 11, 2008, the day the Prime Minister of Canada issued an apology for the Indian Residential Schools system.
100 Years of Loss Brochure
Click here to download the brochure.
100 Years of Loss – Edu-kit and Teacher Bundle
In 2010-2011 the Legacy of Hope Foundation began developing an education program targeted to Canadian youth aged 11-18. This program is designed to support educators and administrators in raising awareness and teaching about the history and legacy of residential schools – effectively providing practical tools that can be implemented in classrooms. These products come in response to demands from educators for complete in-class resources, and serve as an entry point to both the subject matter and to existing resources currently available at wherearethechildren.ca
The curriculum packages are comprised of videos including Survivor testimonies, a Teacher’s Guide with six customizable Lesson Plans (12-24 hrs of activities), teacher resources and extension activities. The Edu-kit package contains a wall-mounted timeline, and timeline in the more-compact teacher bundle is in booklet format.
Due to an overwhelming demand, our supply of the Edu-Kit has been depleted. We do have a supply of the Teachers’ Bundle which is a smaller version of the Edu-Kit but without the vinyl timeline banners. Please download the curriculum guide here.
Aboriginal Healing Foundation
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) has many resources on the Residential School System in Canada. Click here to access AHF publications.